Выравнивание зубов у взрослых

Adult tooth alignment

Not every one of us can boast a beautiful, pleasant smile. Unfortunately, heredity, problems of the development of the body in childhood, past illnesses or injuries can affect the beauty of a smile and significantly reduce self-esteem and just spoil the mood.

Fortunately, there are ways to remedy the situation. The latest developments in the field of orthodontics come to the rescue - a medical science designed to give people a smile.

More recently, in society there was an opinion that it is impossible to correct the defects and defects of the dentition in an adult. However, as electronic media evolves, more and more people become aware of the amazing possibilities of modern orthodontics. Now effective treatment and guaranteed positive cosmetic effect are available to patients, regardless of their age.

Perhaps, one of the few, but important differences between the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient and that of a child or teenager is the fact that the process of moving teeth in adults takes a little longer.

Indications for alignment of the dentition

Treatment at the orthodontist is recommended in cases of:

  • in the presence of separate incorrectly located teeth or crevices between the teeth, curvature of the dentition and / or violation of the position of the jaw,
  • crowding of teeth
  • for pain and clicks in the temporomandibular joint,
  • in the presence of diction defects caused by malocclusion
  • with acquired anomalies,
  • strongly protruding front teeth
  • with large gaps between the upper and lower dentition,
  • with pathologies such as open, distal, mesial, direct or cross bite.

Treatment is contraindicated in the presence of untreated caries, old, worn fillings and crowns that have defects and require replacement, tartar, inflammatory gum disease in the acute phase or with allergies.

The main types and features of bracket systems

Bracket systems are technically sophisticated bite correction systems. Among non-specialists, a common name was adopted for everyone - braces. However, in a professional sense, braces are non-removable elements, small locks that are attached with a special composite glue to the front or rear surface of the teeth and are interconnected using metal arcs. The forces arising from the action of the arc on the braces cause a gradual alignment of the dentition. The arc in the bracket groove is fixed in several ways - using metal or rubber rings, called ligatures, or using a special lid element mounted on the bracket itself.

Braces are made of high-tech hypoallergenic materials - medical stainless steel, alloys of copper, nickel, titanium, molybdenum, as well as ceramic materials and polymers with special properties. Regardless of the material of manufacture of the individual elements of the braces, the arcs connecting them are always made of metal.

Modern bracket systems are usually classified according to the following criteria:

  • At the location in the oral cavity - distinguish vestibular braces that are installed on the outside of the tooth, and lingual (invisible), installed on the inside;
  • According to the material of manufacture - distinguish between metal, plastic, polymer (sapphire and ceramic);
  • By the method of fastening the arc on the bracket - distinguish ligature and ligatureless, or self-ligating;

By the nature of fixation on the teeth, they distinguish non-removable (these include ligature, self-ligating and lingual braces) and removable. The latter include eliners (transparent polymer removable mouth guards)

Each of the systems has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Ligature braces

A distinctive feature of such bracket systems is the need to install and periodically replace the elastic elements (ligatures) that hold the arc in the bracket groove. There are ligature metal, ceramic and sapphire braces.

Metal braces

This is a classic bite correction system that has been used for decades.

Advantages:

  • Profitability metal braces remain one of the most affordable treatment options;
  • Simplicity in leaving and service;
  • Universality metal braces can cope with almost any, even very serious orthodontic problems, such as crowded, turned and strongly protruding teeth;
  • A variety of metal braces can be decorated with colored ligatures.

Disadvantages:

  • Metal systems are visible on the patient's teeth;
  • They require periodic visits to the doctor to replace ligatures;
  • In some cases, they can cause discomfort when worn and even rub your cheeks.

Ceramic Braces

Ceramic braces are a great alternative to metal braces. Made of high-tech polycrystalline alumina material. They are attractive, their color approaches the natural color of enamel, which makes them subtle, do not glare in the light.

Advantages:

  • The color of ceramic braces is as close as possible to the color of tooth enamel, which makes them almost invisible to others;
  • Resistant to various types of influences: chemical, thermal, mechanical;
  • Do not fade;
  • Practically do not stain under the influence of coffee, tea and other food colors;
  • Deprived of a negative effect on tooth enamel;
  • Do not irritate the oral mucosa due to the extremely smooth polished surface and rounded contours;
  • Cheaper than lingual and sapphire bracket systems.

Disadvantages:

  • Ceramic systems are not shown in all clinical cases - sometimes it is preferable to install a more durable metal system;
  • In contrast to metal, sometimes there is increased friction between arcs and a groove of ceramic brackets, which has to be reduced by introducing a metal groove into the bracket, which somewhat reduces the aesthetics of the structure;
  • More expensive than metal bracket systems.

Sapphire braces

This type of braces is made from sapphire crystals artificially grown from alumina. They are characterized by a high degree of transparency, which makes them as invisible as possible to others.

Advantages:

  • More reliable in comparison with ceramic braces;
  • More resistant to external influences.

Disadvantages:

  • High price.

Plastic braces

The difference between plastic and metal systems is an improved aesthetic appearance. At the same time, plastic systems have a fairly low strength and under certain conditions can break in the mouth. In addition, due to the properties of plastic, the treatment time when using plastic bracket systems is significantly increased in comparison with metal.

Advantages:

  • Fairly low visibility in the mouth;
  • They are cheaper than ceramic, lingual and sapphire braces;
  • Can be produced in a wide range of colors.

Disadvantages:

  • They can be stained with food colors (tea, coffee and other food products) and nicotine.

Ligature-free (self-ligating) braces

Distinguish between metal and ceramic self-alloying bracket systems. A feature of such braces is the presence of metal locks, which replace elastic ligatures and more effectively hold the arc in the groove, which leads to accelerated tooth movement already at the initial stages of treatment.

This type of braces allows you to reduce the number and frequency of visits to the doctor due to the exclusion of removable elastic ligatures from the treatment process. Ligature-free braces are a good choice for people who do not have the opportunity to regularly visit a doctor to correct the braces.

Advantages:

  • All the advantages of ligature metal and ceramic systems;
  • Extended intervals between scheduled visits to the attending physician

Disadvantages:

  • Somewhat more expensive compared to ligature systems, depending on the type of system and manufacturer.

Lingual (invisible) braces

A cardinal difference between the lingual bracket system and the vestibular one is the method of its installation, in which all the elements are attached to the inner surface of the teeth, which will make the braces almost invisible.

Advantages:

This method is considered the most aesthetic among all fixed systems.

Disadvantages:

  • A perceptible decrease in the internal volume of the oral cavity, which requires getting used to within several weeks of wearing the system;
  • There may be temporary impairment of diction associated with a period of addiction;
  • More thorough oral care is required;
  • High price.

Eliners

Eliners are an alternative to bracket systems. In shape, these are individual removable mouthguards made of a transparent medical polymer. Mouthguards can be removed for brushing your teeth and eating.

The course of treatment consists in the constant wearing of replaceable caps made, as a rule, in the USA individually for each patient. In terms of size, rigidity and a number of characteristics, each new mouthguard corresponds to a certain stage of treatment. Such caps during the treatment can be made from 20 to 30 pieces.

Mouthguards have a certain degree of rigidity, due to which there is a gradual alignment of the dentition. One of the important features of this treatment is that it passes unnoticed by others. Due to the transparency of the cap, they are even worn by patients who, for various reasons, refuse to use bra

Advantages:

  • Maximum stealth for others;
  • The absence of problems with diction in the initial period of wearing eliners;
  • Quick adaptation of patients to the installed system;
  • Comfort of everyday use;
  • Easy care for the oral cavity and the liner itself;
  • No irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue.

Disadvantages:

  • The limited use of eliners, since they are not effective for correcting complex malocclusions, severe crowding of the teeth and for correcting serious enough curvatures of the dentition;
  • The high cost of the system, associated with the need for individual production and shipping from abroad of a series of caps required for a course of treatment.

Duration of treatment with braces

Depending on the complexity of a particular clinical case, physiological characteristics of the patient’s body and the selected bracket system, the treatment time can vary from 10 months to 2.5 years. The average treatment period is 18 months.

Care and hygiene during treatment

Wearing braces of any type involves the exclusion of solid foods from your diet, such as crackers, nuts, as well as sticky sweets, chewing gums. For the period of wearing braces, it is necessary to provide high-quality, very thorough hygienic care for the oral cavity. During this period, along with a toothbrush, the use of special intradental brushes is shown, with which you can easily clean the space under the arch and dental floss to clean contact points between the teeth.

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